Graphene oxide is known to cause :

Graphene oxide is known to cause:

cardiotoxicity (1),

may function as an electrochemical biosensor (2) using radio frequency or microwaves (3) to detect certain chemicals in the body (4,5).

Its use in drug delivery has shown to create a cytokine storm immune response (6),

facilitates drug delivery across the BBB (Blood Brain Barrier) (7), and may cause cellular changes such as increased neuronal firing (8).

Interestingly, it may be used in Electromagnetogenetics as a basis for mind control (9,10).

Graphene nano particles have unique physical, electrical, and chemical properties, and the biological applications are far-reaching.

1 Zhang J, Cao HY, Wang JQ, Wu GD, Wang L. Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Exhibit Cardiotoxicity Through the Regulation of Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;9:616888. Published 2021 Mar 18. doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.616888
2 Liu M, Chen Q, Lai C, et al. A double signal amplification platform for ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and acetaminophen based on a nanocomposite of ferrocene thiolate stabilized Fe₃O₄@Au nanoparticles with graphene sheet. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;48:75-81. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2013.03.070
3 Lee HJ, Yook JG. Graphene Nanomaterials-Based Radio-Frequency/Microwave Biosensors for Biomaterials Detection. Materials (Basel). 2019;12(6):952. Published 2019 Mar 21. doi:10.3390/ma12060952
4 Speranza G. Carbon Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Functionalization and Sensing Applications. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021;11(4):967. Published 2021 Apr 9. doi:10.3390/nano11040967
5 Prasert K, Sutthibutpong T. Unveiling the Fundamental Mechanisms of Graphene Oxide Selectivity on the Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine, and Uric Acid by Density Functional Theory Calculations and Charge Population Analysis. Sensors (Basel). 2021;21(8):2773. Published 2021 Apr 14. doi:10.3390/s21082773
6 Luo N, Weber JK, Wang S, et al. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14537. Published 2017 Feb 24. doi:10.1038/ncomms14537
7 Su S, Wang J, Qiu J, Martinez-Zaguilan R, Sennoune SR, Wang S. In vitro study of transportation of porphyrin immobilized graphene oxide through blood brain barrier. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2020;107:110313. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2019.110313
8 Pampaloni NP, Lottner M, Giugliano M, et al. Single-layer graphene modulates neuronal communication and augments membrane ion currents. Nat Nanotechnol. 2018;13(8):755-764. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0163-6
9 S. A. Stanley, L. Kelly, K. N. Latcha, S. F. Schmidt, X. Yu, A. R. Nectow, J. Sauer, J. P. Dyke, J. S. Dordick, J. M. Friedman, Bidirectional electromagnetic control of the hypothalamus regulates feeding and metabolism. Nature531, 647–650 (2016).
10 Rastogi SK, Garg R, Scopelliti MG, et al. Remote nongenetic optical modulation of neuronal activity using fuzzy graphene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(24):13339-13349. doi:10.1073/pnas.1919921117

Safety Assessment of Graphene-Based Materials: Focus on Human Health and the Environment


Graphene and its derivatives are heralded as “miracle” materials with manifold applications in different sectors of society from electronics to energy storage to medicine. The increasing exploitation of graphene-based materials (GBMs) necessitates a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impact of these materials on human health and the environment. Here, we discuss synthesis and characterization of GBMs as well as human and environmental hazard assessment of GBMs using in vitro and in vivo model systems with the aim to understand the properties that underlie the biological effects of these materials; not all GBMs are alike, and it is essential that we disentangle the structure–activity relationships for this class of materials.

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