COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 722 studies

Treatments for Covid19 so far include more than 20 items:
Artemisia annua/sweet wormwood,
Omega 3s,
Vitamin C,
Vitamin D3,
Vitamin K2,
Quinine bark/ cinchona officinalis,

All the graphs are easier to read on the original site (above).

ChinaIndiaUSAIndonesiaPakistanBrazilNigeriaBangladeshRussiaMexicoJapanEthiopiaPhilippinesEgyptVietnamDR CongoGermanyIranTurkeyThailandUnited KingdomFranceItalySouth AfricaKenyaMyanmarColombiaSouth KoreaSpainUgandaArgentinaAlgeriaSudanUkraineIraqAfghanistanCanadaPolandMoroccoSaudi ArabiaAngolaPeruUzbekistanMalaysiaGhanaMozambiqueYemenNepalMadagascarVenezuelaCameroonAustraliaCôte d’IvoireNigerTaiwan
Vitamin D78%3                                                       
Vitamin C18%1                                                       

Global early treatment adoption. Details.[0.05-0.13]331,041RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIFluvoxamine0.11[0.01-0.85]12277Iota-carrageenan0.20[0.04-0.91]11394Ivermectin0.28[0.21-0.36]285618,447Povidone-Iodine0.29[0.14-0.61]552,048Casirivimab/imde..0.30[0.19-0.48]557,489Nitazoxanide0.42[0.14-1.30]461,464Bamlanivimab0.43[0.23-0.81]563,121Vitamin D0.45[0.35-0.58]52423,583Budesonide0.46[0.11-1.96]221,806Bromhexine0.56[0.40-0.78]55291Colchicine0.57[0.38-0.85]4917,059Zinc0.61[0.52-0.71]3106,913Favipiravir0.72[0.57-0.92]792,169Hydroxychloroquine0.73[0.69-0.78]35246378,557Remdesivir0.76[0.62-0.92]51523,349Vitamin C0.79[0.66-0.95]6101,424All studies combined (pooled effects, all stages) 5/28/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
Proxalutamide92% [87‑95%]3201,041
Fluvoxamine89% [15‑99%]213277
Iota-carrageenan80% [9‑96%]118394
Ivermectin72% [64‑79%]5648418,447
Povidone-Iodine71% [39‑86%]5532,048
Casiri/imdevimab70% [52‑81%]5437,489
Nitazoxanide58% [-30‑86%]6871,464
Bamlanivimab57% [19‑77%]6643,121
Vitamin D55% [42‑65%]2425323,583
Budesonide54% [-96‑89%]2481,806
Bromhexine44% [22‑60%]556291
Colchicine43% [15‑62%]921517,059
Zinc39% [29‑48%]10966,913
Favipiravir28% [8‑43%]91762,169
Hydroxychloroquine27% [22‑31%]2463,944378,557
Remdesivir24% [8‑38%]1523923,349
Vitamin C21% [5‑34%]101271,424
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies combined (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested – for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses.[0.04-0.18]22451RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIFluvoxamine0.11[0.01-0.85]12277Budesonide0.18[0.04-0.79]11146Povidone-Iodine0.18[0.09-0.38]44694Bromhexine0.21[0.06-0.72]2296Ivermectin0.22[0.12-0.39]13233,227Vitamin D0.22[0.12-0.43]03500Bamlanivimab0.25[0.12-0.54]331,374Casirivimab/imde..0.32[0.20-0.52]335,575Hydroxychloroquine0.34[0.24-0.49]62650,997Nitazoxanide0.51[0.12-2.27]351,414Zinc0.58[0.16-2.11]12626Favipiravir0.62[0.38-1.02]33410Vitamin C0.82[0.23-2.91]1198Early treatment studies (pooled effects) 5/28/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
Proxalutamide92% [82‑96%]215451
Fluvoxamine89% [15‑99%]213277
Budesonide82% [21‑96%]124146
Povidone-Iodine82% [62‑91%]438694
Bromhexine79% [28‑94%]22196
Ivermectin78% [61‑88%]232273,227
Vitamin D78% [57‑88%]324500
Bamlanivimab75% [46‑88%]3401,374
Casiri/imdevimab68% [48‑80%]3415,575
Hydroxychloroquine66% [51‑76%]2642050,997
Nitazoxanide49% [-127‑88%]5671,414
Zinc42% [-111‑84%]214626
Favipiravir38% [-2‑62%]352410
Vitamin C18% [-191‑77%]11198
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis.[0.05-0.15]22804RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIBromhexine0.09[0.01-1.57]22178Povidone-Iodine0.12[0.03-0.50]11606Ivermectin0.26[0.15-0.44]9207,361Casirivimab/imde..0.33[0.03-3.17]112,696Vitamin D0.35[0.24-0.52]4159,355Nitazoxanide0.40[0.10-1.58]23923Bamlanivimab0.52[0.10-2.71]231,551Colchicine0.57[0.38-0.85]4917,059Zinc0.63[0.54-0.74]164,591Remdesivir0.74[0.59-0.93]51423,207Vitamin C0.74[0.59-0.93]47882Hydroxychloroquine0.75[0.69-0.82]15153264,673Favipiravir1.04[0.66-1.66]231,456All mortality results (all stages) 5/28/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
Proxalutamide91% [85‑95%]212804
Bromhexine91% [-57‑99%]218178
Povidone-Iodine88% [50‑97%]16606
Ivermectin74% [56‑85%]201797,361
Casiri/imdevimab67% [-217‑97%]1392,696
Vitamin D65% [48‑76%]151449,355
Nitazoxanide60% [-58‑90%]332923
Bamlanivimab48% [-171‑90%]3241,551
Colchicine43% [15‑62%]921517,059
Zinc37% [26‑46%]6544,591
Remdesivir26% [7‑41%]1423223,207
Vitamin C26% [7‑41%]795882
Hydroxychloroquine25% [18‑31%]1532,701264,673
Favipiravir-4% [-66‑34%]3611,456
Random effects meta-analysis of all mortality results (all stages). Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages depend on the distribution of stages tested – for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage analyses.[0.00-1.43]11769RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIBromhexine0.09[0.01-1.59]1178Povidone-Iodine0.12[0.03-0.50]11606Ivermectin0.19[0.07-0.54]361,193Proxalutamide0.19[0.01-3.90]11214Zinc0.21[0.03-1.47]01518Vitamin D0.22[0.12-0.43]03500Hydroxychloroquine0.25[0.16-0.40]01147,344Casirivimab/imde..0.33[0.03-3.17]112,696Favipiravir0.55[0.05-5.81]1192Nitazoxanide0.59[0.02-13.78]12873Early treatment mortality 5/28/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
Bamlanivimab92% [-43‑100%]11769
Bromhexine91% [-59‑99%]11178
Povidone-Iodine88% [50‑97%]16606
Ivermectin81% [46‑93%]6541,193
Proxalutamide81% [-290‑99%]17214
Zinc79% [-47‑97%]13518
Vitamin D78% [57‑88%]324500
Hydroxychloroquine75% [60‑84%]1116447,344
Casiri/imdevimab67% [-217‑97%]1392,696
Favipiravir45% [-481‑95%]11092
Nitazoxanide41% [-1278‑98%]212873
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment mortality results. Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey.

Recent studies (see the individual treatment pages for all studies):

5/27EarlyMillion et al., Preprint (Preprint)death, ↓83.0%, p=0.0009Early Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in 10,429 COVID-19 Outpatients: A Monocentric Retrospective Cohort Study
Details   Retrospective 10,429 outpatients in France, 8,315 treated with HCQ+AZ a median of 4 days from symptom onset, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.
5/25N/ARoman et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.21.21257595 (Preprint) (meta analysis)meta-analysisIvermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Details   Severely flawed meta analysis, incorrect at first glance. Authors cherry-pick to include only 4 studies reporting non-zero mortality and they claim a mortality RR of 1.11 [0.16-7.65]. However, they report incorrect values for Niaee et a..
5/21EarlyWeinreich et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.19.21257469 (Preprint)death, ↓67.0%, p=0.37REGEN-COV Antibody Cocktail Clinical Outcomes Study in Covid-19 Outpatients
Details   RCT 4,057 outpatients with >=1 risk factor for severe disease, showing significantly lower combined hospitalization/death, and significantly faster recovery with treatment. Median time from onset of symptoms 3 days. NCT04425629.
5/21LateAlcala-Diaz et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13061760 (Peer Reviewed)death, ↓80.8%, p=0.02Calcifediol Treatment and Hospital Mortality Due to COVID-19: A Cohort Study
Details   Retrospective 537 patients in Spain, 79 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. The treated group had a higher risk of comorbidity, whereas the control group had lower O2 saturation, higher CURB‐65,..
5/19LevelsAlSafar et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051714 (Peer Reviewed)death, ↓59.3%, p=0.05COVID-19 Disease Severity and Death in Relation to Vitamin D Status among SARS-CoV-2-Positive UAE Residents
Details   Retrospective 464 patients in United Arab Emirates showing low D levels at first hospital visit associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality.
5/19LevelsLi et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634 (Peer Reviewed)cases, ↓8.6%, p=0.21Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults
Details   Cohort study of 18,148 patients in the USA showing low vitamin D associated with COVID-19 PCR+ status before adjustments but not after. Authors state that “low vitamin D levels were not independently associated with the risk of sero..
5/18EarlyArefin et al., Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, doi:10.1007/s12070-021-02616-7 (Peer Reviewed)viral+, ↓78.9%, p=0.02Virucidal effect of povidone iodine on COVID-19 in the nasopharynx: an open-label randomized clinical trial
Details   RCT with 189 patients showing signficantly greater viral clearance with a single application of PVP-I. Authors recommend using PVP-I prophylactically in the nasopharynx and oropharynx. NCT04549376 [1].
5/18LateHorby et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.18.21257267 (Preprint)death, ↑1.0%, p=0.77Colchicine in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial
Details   RCT with 5,610 colchicine and 5,730 control patients showing mortality RR 1.01 [0.93-1.10]. Very late stage treatment, mean 9 days after symptom onset. Baseline oxygen requirements unknown (data is provided but combined with “none&qu..
5/18In VitroMountain Valley MD (Preprint) (In Vitro)in vitroMountain Valley MD Receives Successful Results From BSL-4 COVID-19 Clearance Trial on Three Variants Tested With Ivectosol™
Details   In Vitro and mouse study with human ACE2 cells, using solubilized ivermectin with Ivectosol™, showing antiviral effect with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 variants of SARS-CoV-2. The ability to inject ivermectin potentially reduces the onset ..
5/17PrEPSyed et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.17.21257012 (Preprint)symp. case, ↑59.7%, p=0.41Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Various Doses of Hdroxychloroquine among high-risk COVID 19 Healthcare Personnel: CHEER randomized controlled trial
Details   Small PrEP RCT of low risk patients, showing no significant differences. Authors report that there was no hospitalization, ICU care or death from COVID-19, however table 3 shows events marked “requiring hospitalization”. NCT0435..
5/16PrEPRojas-Serrano et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.14.21257059 (Preprint)symp. case, ↓82.0%, p=0.12Hydroxychloroquine For Prophylaxis Of COVID-19 In Health Workers: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Early terminated HCQ PrEP RCT with 62 HCQ and 65 placebo patients, showing 82% lower cases with treatment, p = 0.12. NCT04318015. If the trial is continued and the same event rate is observed, statistical significance will be reached aft..
5/12EarlyDrancourt et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13050890 (Peer Reviewed)SARS-CoV-2 Persistent Viral Shedding in the Context of Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin Treatment
Details   Retrospective 3,737 patients in France, showing lower risk of persistent viral shedding with HCQ+AZ treatment.
5/12NewsFLCCC Public Statement (News)newsFLCCC Alliance Statement on the Irregular Actions of Public Health Agencies and the Widespread Disinformation Campaign Against Ivermectin
Details   Analysis of the ivermectin recommendations from WHO and others, and a call to action for all citizens, scientists, and media to counter false information. Whistleblowers can submit anonymous reports and images at the bottom of this page.
5/10EarlyFaisal et al., The Professional Medical Journal, doi:10.29309/TPMJ/2021.28.05.5867 (Peer Reviewed)no recov., ↓68.4%, p=0.005Potential use of azithromycin alone and in combination with ivermectin in fighting against the symptoms of COVID-19
Details   RCT 100 outpatients in Pakistan, 50 treated with ivermectin, showing faster recovery with ivermectin. All patients received AZ, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, and paracetemol. Details of randomization were not provided. No mortality or hospi..
5/10LateSammartino et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251262 (Peer Reviewed)death, ↑240.0%, p=0.002Predictors for inpatient mortality during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A retrospective analysis
Details   Retrospective 1,108 hospitalized patients in New York showing significantly higher mortality with HCQ treatment. Time based confounding is very likely because HCQ became increasingly controversial and less used over the time covered (Mar..

We aim to cover the most promising early treatments for COVID-19. We use pre-specified effect extraction criteria that prioritizes more serious outcomes, for details see methods. For specific outcomes and different treatment stages see the individual pages. Not all treatments are covered here, effectiveness has been reported for many other treatments in studies. Of the 668 studies, 468 present results comparing with a control group, 414 are treatment studies, 54 analyze outcomes based on serum levels, and 45 are meta analyses.Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary; multiple approaches are required to protect all people from all existing and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.

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